Cambridge University Press. 1999. Ovulate cones solitary to few, maturing in 1.5-2(-3) years, shed early or variously persistent, pendent to ± erect, at maturity conic or cylindric, sessile or stalked, shedding seed soon after maturity or variously serotinous (not opening upon maturity but much later, usually in response to fire); scales numerous, persistent, woody or pliable, surface of exposed apical portion of each scale (apophysis) thickened, with umbo (exposed scale surface of young cone) represented by a scar (sometimes apiculate) or extended into a hook, spur, claw, or prickle; bracts included. Many have been recorded in horticulture, as either accidental or deliberate crosses. Some species have small seeds which are furnished with a large membranous wing whose object is to assist in their dispersion. P. patula Schiede ex Schlechtendal et Chamisso var. Pine nuts as aphrodisiacs. Pinus is economically the most significant genus of conifers, the primary products being timber, pulp, tar and turpentine. Pines have leaves in the form of needles. PINUS Division: Coniferophyta Class: Coniferopsida Order: Coniferales Family: Pinaceae Genus: Pinus External Morphology of Pinus: 1. . Sci. Primary leaves are produced on shoots on young plants less than a year old (up to five years or more in a few species) but these are later replaced by cataphylls, which are scale-like, non-photosynthetic leaves. They are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere, (cataphylls) . Seedlings should be planted out when young, in a bright, open site, and given plenty of space to mature without crowding. 1976. Morphology and anatomy of long shoot leaves were described in detail in Dörken et al. There is a higher law affecting our relation to pines as well as to men. 2016); the charcoal occurrence of this fossil is interesting, as it suggests that this extremely fire-adapted genus may have had an association with fire since the beginning. Earle]. Cone on left is about 25 cm long. Subsection Gerardianae: China and the Himalaya, Section Parrya: Western United States and Mexico, Subsection Cembroides: Western United States and Mexico 1988. Pinus is a large, perennial, evergreen plant. The upland pine forests of Nicaragua. Pine, pinyon [English], pinheiro [Portugese], pino, piñon [Spanish], pino [Italian], pin, pignon [French], pijn, den [Dutch], Kiefer [German], fyr [Danish, Norwegian], tall [Swedish], mänty [Finnish], sosna [Russian], bor, mura [Bulgarian], bora, molike [Serbo-croat], peuke, pitys [Greek], çam [Turkish], chir, kail [Hindi], thong [Vietnamese], 松属 matsu [Japanese], 松属 song shu [Chinese]. Branches grow spirally and thus the plant gives the appearance of a conical Many pines show adaptations that allow them to survive and even benefit from fires: thick bark can protect the cambium from heat, and serotinous cones release their seeds only after being scorched (Agee 1998). Chev. PDF. Pines are evergreen and aromatic, and often have resin in the wood, bark, leaves and cones. . scopulorum growing on the rim at Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah [C.J. A site produced by the International Dendrology Society. These are: P. roxburghii, P. wallichiana, P. insularis and P. girardiana. Bark of older stems variously furrowed and plated, plates and/or ridges layered or scaly. Cataphylls form a protective covering on the trunk. Calif. Publ. Branches grow spirally and thus the plant gives the appearance of a conical or pyramidal structure. Subgenus Strobus Lemmon (syn. Little and Critchfield (1969), which established a taxonomic benchmark for the species. Pine cones have scales, I understand the compound nature of pine cones - does that make them scales? Other species known to attain diameters of greater than 2 meters and proportionate heights include P. brutia, P. canariensis (largest pine in the Old World), and P. radiata. . The establishment of plantings in areas free of pine wilt could be important for the survival of the species. Volume 1 of the Flora of North America (Kral 1993) offers the following advice to those attempting to identify pine specimens: Native to all continents and some oceanic islands of the northern hemisphere, chiefly in boreal, temperate, or mountainous tropical regions; reaching its southernmost distribution shortly below the Equator in southeast Asia (Sumatra; P. merkusii). Phylogeny and classification of Pinus. Pinus is the largest conifer genus, with 110 species accepted by Farjon (2005a), while Businský (2008) recognises 116 – and others would acknowledge more. The short shoot leaves are the only assimilating organs. (2005), and Hernández-León et al. The female strobili (cones) are subterminal, solitary or clustered, and pendulous. The precise nature of this fire adaptation varies widely, with some pines tolerant of frequent low-intensity fires and others tending to produce high fuel accumulations that permit stand-destroying fires, after which the pines regenerate quickly., accessed 2002.04.24, now defunct. Richardson (1998), which provides a wealth of ecological information. The pine genus is the largest in the family, with 119 species treated here. A study of the composition of long‐branch terminal buds (LBTB) of Pinus banksiana Lamb. Pinus halepensis Mill. & de Vriese – notable not only as being the single species of pine to cross the equator (in Sumatra), but also as the Old World’s tallest pine, with heights of 70 m being recorded (de Laubenfels 1988). Although primarily a problem in forestry situations, the weevil can cause damage to a wide range of pines and spruces in ornamental horticulture. Little CH(1), MacDonald JE. Ashley Klymiuk. A further contribution to closed-cone pine (Oocarpae) history. Since the . 2007) recommends that species in the pinyon complex should not be planted out until they have developed their first mature foliage. These become shorter as the tree ages. A notable horticultural absentee is Pinus lumholtzii B.L. Stone pines (P. armandii, P. gerardiana, P. pinea, and the species in subsection Cembroides) have an edible seed gathered by indigenous peoples (and sometimes commercially) and often comprising a major seasonal food source. Macon, GA. Critchfield, W. B. However, Pinus is one conifer genus that, despite its antiquity, shows ample evidence of ongoing speciation, and this makes it a very taxonomically complex group; see, e.g., Syring et al. [email protected] Branches grow spirally and thus the plant gives the appearance of a conical or pyramidal structure. comm. 2013. 1993. Between every two pines is a doorway to a new world ... John Muir. Washington, DC. Falcon-Lang, Howard J., Viola Mages, and Margaret Collinson. Moore was sent to the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh from Guatemala in 1993. . The terminal winter-bud is an important differentiating character according to its shape and size, the character of the scales by which it is covered, and whether it be resinous or not, although in some species the last character is variable. Recent collections, however, have made some of these more familiar, and current climatic conditions enable the more tender species to be attempted more widely, often with success. These data also indicate that subgenus Strobus is probably of earlier derivation, with the species in section Parrya the most primitive in the genus. Burns and Honkala (1990) provide detailed descriptions, with a focus on silviculture, for all economically significant pines native to the United States. Pinus subg.Pinus (hard or yellow pines) 11. The leaf-bearing shoots of each season are always to a greater or less extent naked at the base, being furnished there with ‘scale-leaves’ only – small, thin, membranous bodies, often fringed, and usually falling away quickly. . The crown is initially conical with regular (pseudo-) whorls of branches and an erect leader, though some may also be multistemmed. B) Stalk cell done clear. throughout the world. This protects the seedling from rapid grass fires by sacrificing the highly flammable leaves, reducing the exposure of the rest of the plant to heat. . These are thin, small and membranous and are dark-brown in colour pre­sent on both the long and the dwarf shoots (Fig. Although the bulk of the depositions occurred earlier in 1970, when growing degree days were used as the clock, the 2 years were similar.The results provide quantitative data to complement the histologic emphasis of previous studies. B. Krupkin, and S. H. Strauss. In Pinus male gametes are produced in the pollen tube by the division of which of the following cells [BHU 2001] A) Body cell done clear. Axelrod, D. I. & Fernald, which has a wide distribution in western Mexico. The terminal winter-bud is an important differentiating character according to its shape and size, the character of the scales by which it is covered, and whether it be resinous or not, although in some species the last character is variable. ssp. (ed. . For example, Pinus torreyana in its native habitat is only 5–10 m tall and forms a short, gnarled trunk. For most of these popular ornamental species, various cultivars have been developed to emphasize differences in growth form and foliage. . American Journal of Botany 83(4):489-498. Some species of this genus include, Pinus roxburghii, P. wallichiana, P. gerardiana and P. insularis. Ever since then, pines have been preferred subjects for dendrochronology. This was recognised by Victorian planters, in whose relict pineta many venerable pines survive – now in an often picturesque maturity or old age – but has since been overlooked. There are two seeds on each scale, partially enclosed in a membranous cup, which extends to form a persistent triangular wing. Others tend to the opposite extreme, quickly developing into majestic landscape trees. Bark: Bark characters are usually not too useful for pine identification except after a species has been learned thoroughly in the field. As a low-altitude tropical or subtropical species, P. kesiya Royle ex Gordon is of most interest to foresters establishing softwood plantations in tropical countries, although it has several faults that make it less than totally useful as a timber-producing species (Armitage & Burley 1984). 1999. The larger, edible seeds have only rudimentary wings or none at all. The exposed apex of the scale in a mature, closed cone (the apophysis) bears the remnant portion of the exposed scale that developed in the first year (umbo); in species where maturity occurs in the third year (for example, P. pinea), the umbo shows a second concentric ring. Some cataphylls have a primary function other than photosynthesis. Ruth Stockey. Taxonomic notes Two varieties: 1. A young Pinus yunnanensis on the Great Black Mountain, Yunnan, with long shaggy needles. As with many conifer genera there are a few taxa that are widespread (P. sylvestris has the widest distribution), while most have a restricted range. History of the maritime closed-cone pines, Alta and Baja California. New shoots in the ‘candle’ stage on Pinus durangensis . But the pine is no more lumber than man is, and to be made into boards and houses is no more its true and highest use than the truest use of a man is to be cut down and made into manure. The cones are composed of sporophylles. It has its secondary host in Ribes, and a complex life cycle links currant and pine. Each bundle is really a much reduced lateral spur, which bears at the base a few scale-like bracts (the sheath), followed by leaves in the number characteristic of the species, after which the growing point of the spur aborts. 1986. Among coniferous trees the pines constitute by far the most important group, regarded either from the point of view of number of species or that of economic value. Pinus is monoecious, it bears male and female reproductive cones on the same tree but on separate branches. The seed may be wind-carried, in which case it is normally small and light with a wing longer than the seed; or it may be dispersed by animals (primarily birds of the family Corvidae, jays and their allies), in which case the seed is normally larger and heavier, and the wing may be reduced to inconspicuity. A descriptive work illustrated throughout by the author's own excellent drawings, showing the habit of the tree, cones and foliage, and with distribution maps. 1.57A). Among these are several species from the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States; some of the southern Chinese species probably also appreciate hot summers, although they grow better in northern Europe than the southeastern Americans. Geol Sci. Millar, C. I., S. H. Strauss, T. H. Conkle, and R. D. Westfall. There may be from 4 to 24 of them (24 cotyledons, from Pinus maximartinezii, is the largest number known in any plant). . Branches grow spirally and thus the plant gives the appearance of a conical or pyramidal structure. . Botanical Journal of the Linnaean Society 121:365-384. Earle]. 1961, reprinted 1965, New York.]. Can he who has discovered only some of the values of whalebone and whale oil be said to have discovered the true use of the whale? Cataphylls are [BHU 1991] A) Leaves of Selaginella done clear. (2002), Syring et al. Many pines have been used to produce turpentine, a semi-fluid, yellow or brownish resin (oleoresin). . Use of simultaneous analyses to guide fossil‐based calibrations of Pinaceae phylogeny. (1999), Wang et al. Fewer than 20 cataphylls form (1) below the microsporophylls in staminate cone buds, (2) below the mega-sporophylls in ovulate cone buds, and (3) below needles in dwarf-branch buds, whereas hundreds of cataphylls usually form in long-branch buds. Specimen of Pinus palustris scarred for turpentine production. Bark was trimmed annually and sap collected and distilled to produce turpentine and pine tar. To obtain resin commercially, a tapping cut is made in the pine bark and the resin drops are collected into buckets or bags. Molecular Phlyogenetics and Evolution 11(1):95-109. The "classic" white pines of North America: The ancient "foxtail" pines of the SW U.S.: Stated leaf measurements are based on healthy, fully expanded growth, especially that of cone-bearing branches. Syn: Apinus Necker; Strobus Opiz; Caryopitys Small; Ducampopinus A. Cheval. Tom Hudson collected seed at 1800 m in Thailand, but the resultant plants were tender even in the favourable conditions of Tregrehan. The Atlantic, June. 3. Class – Coniferopsida . Chromosomal Localization of 5S and 18S rDNA in Five Species of Subgenus Strobus and their Implications for Genome Evolution of Pinus. In March, winter buds contained a small axis bearing a series of cataphylls surrounding well‐developed embryonic leaves (Fig. Fascicles have 2-6 needles, stomata are more or less equally distributed on all surfaces, resin ducts are variable; sheath is persistent except in P. leiophylla and P. lumholtzii; the fascicle bases have decurrent pulvini. Trees or shrubs, aromatic, evergreen; crown usually conic when young, often rounded or flat-topped with age. Syring, J., A. Willyard, R. Cronn, and A. Liston. Pine wilt disease, caused by the Pinewood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a minor affliction of the North American pines with which it has co-evolved, but European and Asian pines have little resistance to it; species like Pinus sylvestris are not long-lived where it is prevalent, mainly in the southeastern United States. Six species of Pinus are indigenous of which four are restricted to Himalayas. 2. ), but the segregate genera have not received broad recognition. It is clear that the genus divides on genetic characters into two subgenera, subgenus Pinus (hard pines) and subgenus Strobus (soft pines), that are monophyletic and could validly be regarded as separate genera on genetic criteria, were it not for the evident unity of the genus as a whole. and P. balfouriana Balf., which have perfectly decurrent cataphylls (scale leaves) forming clear longitudinal grooves and pulvini … Graham, S.A. 1997. The umbo is located in a dorsal or terminal position and may have a spine or prickle. Gar Rothwell. These cones are composed of a number of woody scales which vary in length, in thickness, and in the character of the scar or boss at the end, and in the presence or absence of spines. 1980). Several pine species can regenerate from epicormic shoots beneath the bark (Agee 1998). Keteleeria Carrière and Abies Miller (Price et al. 2006. Shaw (1909, 1914) and Sudworth (1908), both of whom provide excellent drawings, though the taxonomy is inevitably very dated. The classic Old World, 2-needle hard pines: The fire-adapted, closed-cone pines of California and neighboring areas: Based on the analysis of Hernández-León et al. The cones may be persistent or shed early, and may be serotinous, opening only after a fire. In cultivation, however, it can become a large tree with a straight trunk of 30 m or more. Peattie (1950), one of the more 'literate' writers, a man not afraid to confess his love of great trees. There are currently no active references in this article. Exposed wood was charred during ground fires reinstated as a conservation practice, after turpentine production ceased [C.J. As garden or park trees the pines are of varying merit, but the best of them are amongst the noblest of evergreens. consists of spirally arranged cataphylls which may be sterile or fertile.The cataphylls which bear microstrobili are just above the most proximal few sterile cataphylls. The genetic distance between the subgenera may be as large as or larger than that between e.g. Scaly leaves are thin, brown-coloured and scale like and develop only on long as well as dwarf shoots. Pinus squamata X.-W. Li is noteworthy for being the rarest pine known, with only 20–30 specimens surviving, all young trees growing on a largely deforested ridge in northern Yunnan with scattered P. yunnanensis (Li 1992). Horsman, John – 'Pines in Cultivation', The Plantsman, Vol. Leyden, 1984. As already mentioned, they are also potentially very large trees, for which few gardens would have sufficient space. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52:498–511. They are non-photosynthetic and pro­vide protection to the young buds. While there are smaller and even shrubby species, however, the majority of pines are large trees, suitable only for larger spaces. The subgenera are chiefly distinguished by the following criteria (Richardson 1998): Subgenus Pinus L., also called the hard pines. subgenus Pinus, section Trifoliae (Duhamel), subsection Australes (Loudon). Close-up of an elongating shoot of Pinus thunbergii showing the ovulate cone, at this stage receptive to pollination [C.J. Relationships within the group are unclear, but cone morphology and molecular data suggest that. (2007) and Willyard et al. One of the worst diseases is white pine blister rust, from Cronartium ribicola, an Asian pathogen that has become a significant problem in Europe and North America, seriously restricting the growth of P. strobus, P. monticola and P. lambertiana as forestry species, causing cankers that effectively ring-bark the stems. 1996. It also has medical properties and can be used as stimulant, antispasmodic, astringent, diuretic and anti-pathogenic. Ripe pollen cones on Pinus nigra in Rostock, Germany [Grand-Duc, Wikipedia, 2011.06.06]. External Morphology of Pinus: 1. The tallest and second-largest pine species is P. ponderosa (subsp. 1917. Its larvae penetrate the leader and feed within it, causing it to die back and resulting in trees with forked or crooked stems. Pinus albicaulis tree, cones, seeds, foliage, and Clark's nutrcacker [Matt Strieby, 2018]. The LEAFY/FLORICAULA genes from Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum are necessary for normal flower development and play a key role in diverse angiosperm species. Unquestionably, the oldest pine is Pinus longaeva, of which many individuals over 4,000 years old are known. jemail("earlecj", "gmail", "com"); Subsection Australes: United States, Mexico and the Caribbean Price, R. A., A. Liston and S. H. Strauss. (Aleppo pine) is the most widely distributed pine in the Mediterranean region (Quézel 2000). The wing may be vestigial and ineffective, as is often the case in species where the seeds are distributed by birds (in Pinus by jays and nutcrackers, amongst others). There are two leaf vascular bundles per needle. When the cone is ripe (most frequently at the end of the second year), the scale opens and allows the two seeds at its base to escape; but some species take longer, and several appear never to release their seeds at all unless through some outside agency such as fire (in the West American forests), or squirrels, or birds. Effects of exogenous gibberellin and auxin on shoot elongation and vegetative bud development in seedlings of Pinus sylvestris and Picea glauca. A study of Pinus subsection Cembroides I: The single-needle Piñons of the Californias and the Great Basin. 2003 Feb;23(2):73-83. It is superficially similar to P. patula but has exceptionally long, vertically pendent needles (15–)20–30(–40) cm long or more. Examples of the type include Pinus sylvestris, P. mugo, P. densiflora and P. contorta. Simpson, perhaps the most celebrated American criminal trial of the 20th century) (Graham 1997). Keywords: Pinus roxburghii,cytotoxicity, Pharma-cological activities,phytochemical constituents Introduction The Pinus roxburghii Sarg (Pinaceae) is commonly known as chir pine. The leaves are of two types, i.e., foliage and scaly. Image P. Williams. Transfusion tissue, a modified vascular tissue is present in ... Cataphylls are. . Subsection Contortae: North America and Mexico (Baja California Norte), Section Pinus: Europe, Asia, Mediterreanean Africa, eastern North America and Cuba, Subsection Pinus: Europe, Asia (south to Sumatra), eastern North America and Cuba Conversely, the world's smallest pine is P. contorta subsp. The needles are the most recognizable. Image John Grimshaw. Publ. Seed has been introduced on at least two occasions (K. Rushforth 594, Jalisco, November 1984; Hjerting & Ødum 269, Chihuahua, October 1989) but it has not become established; Keith Rushforth (pers. a shower bath using sulfurous water, especially as part of a curative therapy. Subsection Pinaster: Mediterreanean and western Himalaya. It has been attempted at Tregrehan but was killed by cold there (T. Hudson, pers. Another good method to identify a Pine is by its foliage. . (2010) and are therefore excluded in this paper. There is strong shoot dimorphism, with branching shoots and reduced foliage (dwarf) shoots. Perry (1991), an invaluable reference for the pines of Mexico and Central America. Cataphylls-Cataphylls are a feature of all types of buds of Pinus banksiana. 1999c), and the website The Gymnosperm Database ( produced by C.J. Our accounts have also benefited greatly from generous input from Michael Frankis and Keith Rushforth. Many of the species described here are from Mexico and further south in Central America, where the diversity of pines is at its highest. The number of leaves per fascicle varies depending on the species, due to the Revista Mexicana de … Seeds of Pinus gerardiana (chilgoza) and of P. educlis are edible. Foliage leaves are present at the apex Where the leaves are in bundles of two the transverse section of each is semicircular, in the bundles of three to five they are three-sided. It has been collected throughout its range for extensive forestry trials in Australia, Africa and elsewhere with subtropical or tropical climates (Birks & Barnes 1995), but with the exception of a few trees at Berkeley, it seems not to have been tried as an ornamental tree; in foliage it is similar to its close relative P. patula. Non-motile male gametes are formed in. Sulfur shower Meaning. The most significant hard resin from a commercial point of view is rosin, which is obtained by distillation of pine resin. Systematic Biology 56(2):163–181. Critchfield and Little (1969) is still the most encyclopedic source of range maps, though some notable range extensions have since been reported. 2. Examples include white pines such as P. strobus and P. armandii, and many pines in subsections Ponderosae (in the new world) and Pinaster (in the old), such as P. ponderosa, P. coulteri, P. montezumae, P. pinaster, P. brutia, and P. canariensis.